Tag Archives: Transportation

Pipeline Petroleum Transport Investment May Predict Growing Cathodic Protection Needs

If Warren Buffet’s investment strategy is any indication, pipeline efficiency is going to start playing a bigger role in moving crude oil and natural gas in the United States.

The Berkshire Hathaway luminary is pipeline-efficiency-cathodic-protectionspearheading a swap of about $1.4 billion in shares of Phillips 66 for full ownership of the energy company’s pipeline petroleum transport services business. The business unit’s focus is polymer-based additives that are used to move crude oil and natural gas through pipelines more efficiently by reducing drag.

The shift in Berkshire’s investment strategy comes amid a boom in U.S. crude oil and natural gas production. Since many liquids pipelines in the United States are operating at capacity, producers can use the pipeline petroleum transport additive to quickly increase capacity without immediately growing pipeline infrastructure.

Although future pipeline projects may be in the works to meet the sharp increase in demand, the process of gaining approval for new pipeline projects can be slowed by permitting.

A greater reliance on existing pipelines for transporting liquids means that producers and pipeline owners need to pay even more attention to cathodic protection management, according to Kevin Groll, project management director for MATCOR, a Pennsylvania-based company that specializes in cathodic protection products and services.

“Any time you have pipeline you have to protect it from corrosion,” Groll said. “And that’s especially true when you increase the value of a pipeline by increasing its capacity. If that pipeline were to develop a corrosion problem you’d be facing a situation where your profitability could suffer significantly.”

“With pipeline owners using additives to push greater volumes of liquids it becomes imperative to use cathodic protection products such as impressed current anodes and cathodic protection rectifiers to protect the increased capacity and profitability of the pipeline infrastructure.”

Further Reading

Berkshire Swaps $1.4 Billion in Phillips 66 Stock in Deal,” Bloomberg, December 31, 2013.

Canada’s infrastructure in need of $171.8 billion in repairs

Canada’s leaky municipal infrastructure faces an increasingly grim future unless the federal government sinks an estimated $171.8 billion into repairing or replacing aging roads and water systems, a new report says.

With the Conservatives’ infrastructure funding plan set to expire in 2014, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities’ first-ever national infrastructure report card called for a commitment from Ottawa to support cash-strapped municipalities, many of which are home to decaying, “at-risk” infrastructure.

The report, a sweeping examination of 123 municipalities that was released Tuesday, paints a bleak portrait of Canada’s roads and wastewater systems. More than half of municipal roads received a grade of “fair” to “very poor” for displaying general physical decline, significant signs of corrosion or “widespread signs of advanced deterioration.”

“(The report) affirms that we know that there is infrastructure that is not meeting a certain standard across the country,” FCM president Karen Leibovici said in an interview. “We need to tackle that . . . to ensure that the infrastructure we have throughout this country is able to meet needs.”

Shabby roads have made headlines in recent months after massive concrete blocks shattered on Montreal’s Ville-Marie Expressway and pieces of Toronto’s Gardiner Expressway rained down on bustling Lakeshore Blvd. Last Tuesday, an Ottawa motorist drove into a sinkhole caused by a collapsed culvert pipe on Highway 174.

Leibovici stressed that it remains incumbent upon the federal government to narrow the so-called infrastructure deficit by providing top-down funding beyond 2014.

Since it was hatched in 2007, the Conservatives’ “Building Canada” plan has provided about $2 billion annually in infrastructure funding to municipalities. Ottawa’s gas tax fund funnels $2 billion into cities for public works projects and this year’s budget promised future cash for public works projects.

Still, NDP Transport and Infrastructure critic Olivia Chow called the current situation “simply unacceptable.”

“Bridges dropping concrete and highway sinkholes swallowing cars are not freak accidents but symptomatic of the crumbling infrastructure across Canada,” she said in a statement. “The Harper Conservatives have neglected Canada’s roads, water and transit systems and Canadians are paying the price.”

Government officials are in talks with local and provincial leaders and private sector interests about crafting a funding plan to kick in when the current one expires, said Geneviève Sicard, press secretary for Infrastructure Minister Denis Lebel.

The report card, which does not contain recommendations, also highlighted widespread decrepitude in wastewater infrastructure, with roughly 40 per cent of pumping stations and storage tanks experiencing varying degrees of decline.

New federal wastewater regulations will likely improve several hundred water systems across the country, but those come with a hefty $20 billion price tag that municipalities will have to cover over the next two decades.

Guy Félio, a Carleton University civil engineer and lead author on the study, said the report card should send a clear message to the federal government “we’re in a position to control our destiny from an infrastructure perspective and for that we need to manage it properly.”

Municipalities leave federal stimulus money on table

Ninety-nine “shovel-ready” municipal projects that planned to take advantage of $4 billion in federal stimulus money were forced to forgo grants after missing a federal government-mandated completion deadline last year.

In 2009, the Conservatives had offered 3,913 projects money from its Infrastructure Stimulus Fund, intending to steamroll a lagging economy. The deadline for those projects — including more than 500 projects, such as road and bridge revitalizations, in Toronto — was extended to Oct. 31, 2011, from March 31, 2011.

While Ottawa said it would cover “its share of all eligible costs” up to the extended deadline, Infrastructure Canada remains tight-lipped on the amount of money municipalities left on the table.

“Infrastructure Canada cannot provide the total amount of funding that these projects may have to forgo, given that all projects are not yet complete and the final financial reconciliation has not been completed,” a ministry spokesperson Caroline Grondin said.

SOURCE: http://www.londoncommunitynews.com/2012/09/canadas-infrastructure-in-need-of-171-8-billion-in-repairs/

Cost of Corrosion Increase – Forth Road Bridge

Significant inaccuracies in the as-built drawings for the Forth Road Bridge’s cable anchorages are to dramatically increase the cost of corrosion investigations, the “New Civil Engineer” publication learned this week.

Examination of the bridge’s southern anchorages – which hold the huge suspension cables in place – is taking much longer than anticipated because they are deeper and steeper than the on the original as-built drawings.

The Forth Estuary Transport Authority (Feta) is investigating the condition of the 48 year old anchorages after a resident engineer’s report raised concerns about the possibility of corrosion in the post tensioned strands within them.

In a capital update report to the bridge authority, Forth Road Bridge chief engineer and bridgemaster Barry Colford says the cost of the inspection is likely to be “significantly higher than the original estimate” of £3.5M.

“It’s a very resource driven contract,” Colford told NCE. “As the rockhead level was higher and there more was concrete [than anticipated] the contractor has had to spend more money.”

 

The anchorages are four concrete filled tunnels – 80m deep on the south side, 57m deep on the north side – and up to 14m in diameter.

The anchorages each transfer a load of 14,000t from the main suspensions cables into the bedrock.

Each anchorage consists of 114 ducts with four post-tensioned, galvanised, 32mm diameter high tensile steel strands made up of 19 wires in each.

With the original access chamber to the bottom of all four anchorages filled in, the only way to assess the condition of the strands is to dig down and open them up, said Colford.

Contractor Graham began the anchorage investigation on the southern bank in August 2011 under a New Engineering Contract (NEC) 3 Option C target cost contract with a target cost of £3.5M.

But after investigations began, engineers discovered that the ducts were 400mm deeper and were at an angle of 33˚, not 30˚ as recorded on the as-built drawings.

“It’s a significant change to what we expected and it is very disappointing the as-built drawings of a major structure were not correct,” added Colford.

Graham will begin exposing up to nine stands on each of the southern anchorages by the end of the year. Consultant Fairhurst will assess the strength of the anchorages by the end of 2013.

Colford is in discussions with Graham about the size of the compensation event – the cost of work unforeseen at tender stage – and £220,000 has already been agreed.

The extra funds for the anchorage investigation are contributing to an overall deficit of £3.5M in Feta’s capital budget for 2012/13.

Its capital funding was cut by 58% by Transport Scotland last year.

Colford said budget shortfall would be met by using some of Feta’s £5.8M reserve, as well as delaying or cancelling “non-committed” schemes on the bridge.

He was also seeking additional funds from Transport Scotland.

SOURCE: http://www.nce.co.uk/news/structures/forth-anchor-corrosion-probe-costs-pushed-up/8635624.article?blocktitle=Exclusive-news-from-NCE-magazine&contentID=204

Tobin Bridge rates ‘fair’ in corrosion reports

State-issued inspection reports released on Friday in the wake of a corroded light fixture tumbling onto a ramp of the Maurice J. Tobin Memorial Bridge show that the 62-year-old structure is in “fair” condition with some “severe” structural deficiencies.

The structure of the bridge, which is currently undergoing a $45 million repainting and rehabilitation, was downgraded from a rating of 6, or “satisfactory”condition, in a 2009 state Department of Transportation inspection report to a 5, or “fair” condition, in its most recent 2011 report.

“We base our inspections on the overall rating of the bridge. While some elements of the structure are showing greater signs of wear … the structure as a whole is sound,” said MassDOT spokeswoman Cyndi Roy. “If the rating were to decrease to a 4 (or poor) we would then begin annual inspections of the bridge, versus the current schedule of every two years — the national standard.”

The area where the bridge deteriorated the most from 2009 and 2011 was in its girders and beams, now rated as having “severe/major deficiency.” Deteriorated and cracked concrete parts of the bridge’s substructure columns also were given the same “severe” rating in both the 2009 and 2011 reports.

“It’s not totally unacceptable to have some level of corrosion, especially given the bridge’s location right on the harbor, where the mist and salt lend to creating some corrosion,” Roy added.

The DOT released the bridge reports after holding a press conference to announce that crews overnight Thursday removed seven spotlights from the bridge after one of the lights — there are total of 18 on the bridge — broke free from a bracket under the Tobin’s upper deck and came crashing down onto an approach ramp to Route 1 in Charlestown.

SOURCE: http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view/20220721tobin_bridge_rates_fair_in_reports/

Alberta pipeline spills prompt questions

EDMONTON – Three pipeline spills in Alberta this spring have many people wondering whether there are better ways to move the petroleum products that are the lifeblood of Alberta’s economy.

The oil industry’s reliance on pipelines — which organizations such as the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers and the Canadian Energy Pipelines Association say are the safest way to transport products— have companies like TransCanada and Enbridge proposing to expand their lines to carry Alberta bitumen to refineries in Texas and tankers at Kitimat, B.C., for shipment to Asia and its hungry economy.

“The industry really does move all of its oil and natural gas products through pipeline to get to market,” says Greg Stringham, vice-president of markets and oilsands CAPP. “Today in Canada, we are actually producing … almost three million barrels a day, and that’s across the country of course, from the field, to the upgraders, to refineries.”

To put that volume in perspective, CN Rail began in 2010 to test its ability to move heavy crude, light oil, and bitumen to markets in Eastern Canada and the United States.

The company moved three million barrels of oil last year, and expects to move 15 million barrels in 2012. That’s about five days worth of total production.

“Rail does play a part. But (pipelines) are the main transportation grid we use to move oil across the continent. It really has proven to be a very reliable, very safe, and a very efficient way to move this product,” Stringham says. “We are getting fairly constrained on the pipeline capacity given the growth that is happening.”

The use of tanker trucks to move oil is more difficult to measure. Alberta Transportation does not keep track of vehicles carrying petroleum on roads, but can say 430 of 602 “incidents” in 2011 involved petroleum products. The department defines “incidents” as anything that prevents a product from getting to its destination.

Expanding the reach Alberta’s pipelines is key in maintaining the province’s economic stake in the global oil market, provincial Energy Minister Ken Hughes says.

With that need comes a responsibility to maintain the pipeline system.

“The industry as well as the government need to ensure that we have ways to demonstrate the solid aspects of this way of transporting fuels across Canada,” Hughes says. “North America will continue to be heavy users of oil and of natural gas. Those products have to get to market somehow. What we need to do is ensure that they get there with as few incidents as possible.”

The Pembina Institute think-tank, which is among the environmental groups supporting a call for an independent investigation of Alberta’s pipelines, suggests there could be alternatives to building pipelines — particularly the proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway line to Kitimat, B.C., which has raised concerns from First Nations communities and municipalities along the proposed northern route to the West Coast.

Nathan Lemphers, a senior policy analyst in the Pembina Institute’s oilsands program, says the capacity of existing pipelines could be increased by increasing the number of pumping stations. Alternatively, companies could transport more product via rail.

“It’s not necessarily a clear-cut solution. There’s benefits and drawbacks to each method of transporting oil,” Lemphers says.

Pipelines leak. Trains derail, tanker trucks crash.

Since trains typically move less product than pipelines, spills are smaller. Derailments can be recognized far faster than pipeline spills.

A natural gas operator in Michigan was the first to notice oil spilling from Enbridge’s pipeline at the Kalamazoo River in 2010. The incident has since netted the company a multimillion-dollar fine in the United States and raised questions about the state of the control room in Edmonton, after testimony given during the investigation shed light on what was happening during the 17 hours it took to shut the line.

“When you have the government coming out and saying, well, simply trust us, we have adequate measures in place without actually coming forward and offering evidence for that position, it puts the government in a fairly precarious situation,” Lemphers says. “Having more information on the table will help ground further discussions” about pipeline expansion.

“Having pipelines in your backyard is nothing new for Albertans, but Albertans also have strong ties to the land and want to see the land conserved,” he says.

Doug Goss still remembers an oil spill that cut summer short at Wabamun Lake in 2005.

“It was a disaster, in every sense of the word,” Goss says. “When you get to the point where the front of the beach is covered in oil and there’s dead animals all over the place, and you’re told you can’t use the lake for the rest of the summer for any reason, it’s pretty devastating.”

But unlike the recent spills, the one at Wabamun Lake was from a 43-car train derailment.

That summer, 1.1 million litres (7,000 barrels) of Bunker C fuel oil spilled into the lake, creating a seven-kilometre slick. The cleanup took nearly a year and cost CN Rail an estimated $28 million.

“We haven’t had any issues since that spill many years ago. We cross our fingers all the time that that won’t happen again,” Goss says. “As a resident, we would be proponents of whatever system is proven to be the safest to transport substances like oil.”

The Wabamun incident sparked a provincial study and recommendations for a faster, more comprehensive response to environmental disasters.

Despite a growing volume of freight being moved along its tracks, CN’s derailments are down. In 2011, the company had 55 main track derailments, compared to 110 in 2005. To date, there have been 27 derailments along main tracks compared to 34 at this time last year.

SOURCE: http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Alberta+pipeline+spills+prompt+questions/6896510/story.html

Corrosion likely culprit in roof collapse

The partial collapse of a shopping mall roof last weekend was likely the result of a combination of factors the most likely cause was corrosion of the reinforced concrete, said Mark Green, a Queen’s University engineering professor.

On Saturday afternoon a section of the roof at the Algo Centre Mall (Kingston, Ontario) collapsed.

A section of roof about 12 metres by 24 metres fell.

The roof supported a parking lot and at least two vehicles fell into the mall when the roof came down. Because the roof served as a parking lot, corrosion could have been an even greater issue because of the salt used to clear the surface of ice during winter.

Green said it was also possible that the design of the building may have included an aspect that made it more susceptible to collapse.

Twenty-two people were injured in the collapse.

Police also said at least 30 were missing.

In 2010, mall owners Eastwood Malls Inc. spent about $1 million to repair leaks in the roof that had been ongoing for several years.

But hints of a catastrophic collapse may have been easily overlooked, Green said.

“The warning signs may not have been that obvious,” he said.

In April 2010, a section of the parking garage at Confederation Place hotel in Kingston collapsed, damaging about 20 vehicles and closing the hotel for several days for repairs.

In 2006 a bridge in Laval collapsed, killing five people. That bridge had been inspected shortly before it fell, Green said

That bridge collapse prompted inspections of other bridges in Quebec and Green said he expects buildings similar in age and design to the Algo Centre to undergo additional inspections in the coming weeks.

On Monday a small piece of concrete fell off the Gardiner Expressway hitting a car below.

SOURCE: http://www.thewhig.com/2012/06/25/corrosion-likely-culprit-in-roof-collapse-expert

Caissons a solid sign of progress on new Forth bridge

The new Forth crossing will be fitted with dehumidification equipment to cut the risk of the corrosion which has blighted the existing bridge.

At a briefing on the progress of the £1.4 billion project being built by the Forth Crossing Bridge Constructors, Transport Scotland project director David Climie said work was on schedule.

”We are still exactly where we want to be, on time and budget,” he said.

Only three months ago there were 384 people working from the Rosyth base but now that number has more than doubled, with 800 staff working on various parts of the site. At its peak 1,200 staff will be employed.

One of the most important milestones of the entire project has just been reached — the arrival of the first two caissons which will form the foundations of the north and south towers.

In a ”foundation” year for the project, Mr Climie said: ”We are extremely happy with the way things are progressing.”

Carlo Germani, the FCBC project director, said: ”We are into the real construction work now. We have done a lot of the preparation and what you see is work on the bridge itself starting with the arrival of the caissons.”

These are the huge cylinders ranging in height from 21.1m to 30m — around the same as an eight-storey building — with diameters of around 32m.

The largest weighs roughly 1,200 tonnes, making it one of the largest steel caissons ever sunk down to the seabed.

They will be used as moulds for the foundations, comprising underwater and reinforced structural concrete. More caissons are due to arrive in a few days.

FCBC’s Carson Carney explained the process of building the central tower, which will be constructed on site in 4m high increments, would start this year.

The deck sections are being built in China and Spain and will be shipped over and stored at Rosyth.

With corrosion affecting the existing bridge, Mr Carney explained the crossing’s cables are made up of strands containing galvanised steel wires, with a wax coating and covered in plastic.

”There is no way you can get water into the actual strands themselves. This is a state-of-the-art type system.”

Each strand is capable of being individually replaced if necessary without causing widespread disruption to traffic.

There is a dehumidification system at deck level and on the anchorage points.

SOURCE: http://www.thecourier.co.uk/News/National/article/23358/caissons-a-solid-sign-of-progress-on-new-forth-bridge.html

Pipeline Integrity Management Meeting Set

The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives are jointly sponsoring the public meeting June 27 in Fort Worth, Texas.

A meeting to gauge gas distribution pipeline operators’ readiness for federal and state inspections of their integrity management programs has been set for June 27 in Fort Worth, Texas, by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives. It is open to the public and will be webcast, according to PHMSA’s announcement.

PHMSA and NAPSR representatives will discuss observations from initial inspections of operators’ implemented integrity management programs.

PHMSA published a final rule in December 2009 setting requirements for ensuring the continued integrity of gas distribution pipelines; it gave operators until Aug. 2, 2011, to implement them. PHMSA and states have conducted some inspections and have many more inspections coming up, the notice says.

The meeting will be held from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. CDT at the OMNI Hotel, 1300 Houston St., Fort Worth, TX 76102-6556; visit http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/meetings/Home.mtg to register and for additional information.

SOURCE: http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/06/11/pipeline-integrity-management-meeting-set.aspx?admgarea=news

Washington Gas ordered to pay six-figure penalty in home explosion case

Washington Gas has agreed to replace copper lines throughout a Chantilly neighborhood and pay Virginia a six-figure penalty stemming from a explosion in 2010, but the settlement will not compensate the homeowner’s whose loss launched the investigation.

In the agreement between the company and the State Corporation Commission, Washington Gas neither admits or denies violating safety standards. The company has been directed to undertake several safety improvements, including the replacement of all copper service lines in the Brookfield Community where the explosion occurred.

As of Dec. 20, 2010, charred debris was all that remained of Thuan Nguyen’s two-story home in the 4300 block of Lees Corner Road. No one was hurt in the explosion as the Nguyen family was out at the time.

A subsequent investigation and report of the accident by the SCC’s Division of Utility & Railroad Safety cited nine alleged violations of the commission’s gas pipeline safety standards against Washington Gas.

The report states the gas service line under Lees Corner Road leading to Nguyen’s home experienced severe corrosion that resulted in a major gas leak.

However, the report also states that alone is not enough to prove culpability for the explosion on the part of Washington Gas because it cannot be proved that a 1-inch diameter gas fuel line that “terminated on the second floor of the [Nguyen] residence” had been properly capped.

According to the report, the end threads of that fuel line were tested after the explosion for the presence of pipe thread sealant; none was found.

Representatives of the SCC and Washington Gas announced the settlement May 24 during a public forum in the neighborhood.

“We turned over every stone we could,” said Massoud Tahamtani, director of SCC’s Division of Utility & Railroad Safety. “What we found is that there were two sources of the potential leak; one under Washington Gas’s control and one under the homeowner’s control.”

According to SCC safety manager Shane Ayers, Washington Gas will be pay a penalty of $154,800 to the state, with an additional $219,700 due if the remedial actions set forth in the order are not met.

“We’ve got over 200 lines to replace in this neighborhood,” said Steve Price, Washington Gas spokesman.

“So if you don’t think the explosion was caused by faulty copper lines, why all this work?” Nguyen asked during the public forum.

“The corrosion rate for copper pipes is greater than other materials like steel,” Stabler replied. “It is rare to see corrosion and we only see two corrosions per year on average. We will take this opportunity to replace older copper lines in this neighborhood. ”

SOURCE: http://www.fairfaxtimes.com/article/20120601/NEWS/706019697/1117/washington-gas-ordered-to-pay-six-figure-penalty-in-home-explosion&template=fairfaxTimes

 

Road cave-in caused by corrosion in slab

MUMBAI: The Andheri (E) road cave-in on Tuesday was caused by corrosion of steel in a slab, it has been revealed prima facie.

Consultant D S Joshi, who made the submission to the BMC, told TOI that material from the site had been sent for laboratory tests to ascertain the reasons for the corrosion. “I would be able to give the exact reasons once the report is available. It would take about a week,” he added.

Meanwhile, the BMC on Wednesday decided to conduct an audit of all concrete slabs over nullahs across the city.

The 30-ft road in Gundavali village has two lanes on either side of a 20-ft-wide nullah. The road was built by laying slabs atop portions of the nullah in 1985.

N V Merani, chairman of the Standing Technical Advisory Committee (STAC), said the nullah’s water could have eroded the earth below the slabs. “The other possible reasons could be lack of maintainance or poor quality,” he said, adding that laboratory results could only shed light on the extent of loss of strength due to corrosion and not the reasons behind the same.

“This can be found out only through close inspection of the corroded section by an experienced engineer,” he said.

Two weeks ago, the STAC had raised the issue of old civic bridges with the BMC. There are 253 bridges in the city; of these, 102 are over waterways, 17 are flyovers, 41 road overbridges, 93 foot over-bridges and subways.

“We did a study of 34 old bridges three years ago. By now, they should have been repaired or reconstructed. But nothing has moved,” said Merani.

The STAC had recommended that a separate chief engineer be appointed to exclusively monitor bridges and concrete roads. The BMC has created a post not filled it up. “The MMRDA is constructing flyovers and roads and handing them over to the BMC. The corporation needs to appoint a person to that post. We have even suggested that if they cannot promote an engineer, they can get someone on deputation. But decisions in the BMC are ad-hoc,” he said.

SOURCE: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-05-24/mumbai/31839803_1_bmc-slabs-bridges