Overall The US Pipeline regulatory environment is poised to see several new rules implemented to expand the scope and effectiveness of pipeline regulations with a goal to improve the integrity and safety of hazardous material pipeline. These rule changes were all initiated years ago and have been winding their way through the regulatory process, soliciting input from the industry and from concerned citizens, environmental groups and other interested parties.
The Liquids “Final Rule” In January of 2017 in the last few days of the Obama Administration, the Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration issued a final rule amending its Rule 49 CFR 195 that among other things expanded integrity management and leak detections beyond high consequence areas (HCA’s). The Final Rule tightened standards and broadened data collection and monitoring requirements for pipeline operators. A few days into the Trump administration, the White House issued a directive to federal agencies to freeze sending new regulations to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and withdrawing any regulations sent to the OFR. Thus the liquids “Final Rule” that was 6 years in the making was withdrawn and is awaiting resubmittal by the new administration. While the exact requirements of the Final Rule may be changed, some of the key changes from the withdrawn rule included:
• Assessment of non-HCA pipeline segments every 10 years in compliance with provisions of 49 CFR Part 195. • Increased use of inline inspection tools for all hazardous pipelines in HCA. • Requirement for leak detection systems for covered pipelines in both HCA and non-HCAs.
PHMSA anticipates coming out with their revised “Final Rule” in the Fall of 2018.
The Gas “Mega Rule” On the gas side of the pipeline regulatory environment, 49 CFR Parts 191 and 192, several public meetings have been held regarding PHMSA’s proposed gas rules, often referred to as the Gas Mega Rule. The rulemaking changes originally recommended would have nearly doubled the current number of pages in the regulations. PHMSA has announced that instead of one Mega Rule, the effort would be broken into three separate rules that are expected to be introduced in 2018 and to go into effect in 2019. Part 1 addresses the expansion of risk assessment and MAOP requirements to include areas in non-High Consequence Areas (HCAs) and moderate consequence areas (MCAs.) Part 2 of the rule making focuses on the expansions of integrity management program regulations including corrosion control to gathering lines and other previously non-regulated lines. Part 3 of the gas rule making is expected to focus on reporting requirements, safety regulations and definitions to include expanding into related gas facilities associated with pipeline systems.
We appreciate the question: “How does soil resistivity impact current rating.” The short answer is that resistance has nothing to do with anode rating. Here is a more detailed response:
Anode current rating – all anodes have a current rating based on how long they can be expected to operate at a given current rating. All anodes have some defined expected life based on current output and time – so many Amp-Hours of service life. For example a magnesium anode may have an expected consumption rate of 17 lb/Amp-year (7.8 kg/amp) so if a 17 lb anode is operated at 0.1 amps it would have a life of 10 years. For MMO anodes, they too have an expected life. For our linear anode rated at 51 mA/m it is important to know that that rating is actually 51 mA/m for 25 years. So a 100m anode segment with this rating would have an expected life of 127.5 Amp-years. If this anode were operated at 5.1 amps (full rated capacity) it would be expected to operate for 25 years. IF it were operated at 2.55 amps (50% of rated capacity) it should last 50 years. The anode life is generally linear. Please note that resistance has nothing to do with the anode current rating – the anode current rating merely calculates the life of the anode as a function of how many amps for how long of time.
Actual current output – just because you install an anode rated for 5.1 amps for 25 years (our 100m segment of 51 mA/m SPL-FBR) does not mean that the anode will output this amount of current. It just means that at that current rating you can expect 25 years of life. The anode is merely one component of the overall cathodic protection circuit. The actual output of the anode is function of Ohms Law ( Voltage = Current * Resistance). It would make sense to note that if the system Voltage were zero (the rectifier were turned off or disconnected) then the anode would not have any current output. Likewise if the 100m anode segment were installed in a very low resistance environment and driven by a powerful rectifier, the current could be much higher than 5.1 amps which would result in a much shorter life.
Why anode rating is important to the CP designer – the CP designer is tasked with protecting a specific structure for a given period of time (protect this pipeline for 30 years.) The CP designer then calculates, based on actual testing or established guidelines, the amount of current that should be sufficient to achieve appropriate CP levels to protect the structure. This results in an answer of some number X of amps required. If the requirements are to protect the structure for Y number of years, then the anode life required is X * Y (# of amps times # of years). This defines the minimum amount of anode life that is needed.
The next question the CP designer must address, once it is determined how much current is needed, is how to design a system that will generate that amount of current. Since Ohms Law dictates that Voltage = Current * Resistance (V=IR) then if we know that the Current = Voltage/Resistance (I=V/R.) Thus the CP designer must understand how to calculate system resistance (R) and must provide sufficient driving force (V) Several factors affect system resistance (R) including anode geometry – the longer an anode, the lower its resistance – which in many applications is a big benefit to the linear anode. One of the great benefits of the linear anode is that because of its length, in most applications the soil resistivity plays a lesser role since the anode resistance to earth is generally low for a wide range of soil resistivities due to its length. For extremely high resistance environments, linear anodes may be the best option since short anodes will not have a low enough resistance.
There are other factors that go into CP design including current distribution and making sure sufficient current is being applied across the entire structure.
CP Design can be very complicated. I hope that the above explanation is helpful, but if there is a specific application to evaluate, please contact us with the details. We are also available, for a reasonable engineering fee, to develop and/or review CP system designs.
We are pleased to welcome Dean Lioliou to the MATCOR Team as the Gulf Coast Region Account Manager.
Dean was most recently over sales for ALS Oil & Gas’ Pipeline & Asset Integrity division. His focus was on fiber optic pipeline leak detection, cathodic protection monitoring, corrosion under insulation analysis through thermal imaging technology, and pipeline leak surveying utilizing drone technology. Prior to ALS, he spent many years at Abriox as the Southern Area Regional Sales Manager focusing on Cathodic Protection monitoring.
Dean is very involved with NACE, currently serving as Vice Chairman of the TX/LA Section, a member of the exhibits and conferences committee for NACE International, and is involved in the Houston, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi sections. He is also NACE CP Level 2 certified.
Please join us in congratulating Dean and welcoming him to the organization. He can be reached at 832-755-2714 or by email at email@example.com.
MMO anode technology has taken over the cathodic protection industry and MATCOR has been on the forefront for the last 20 years. Ted Huck, our VP of International Sales was interviewed at the recent NACE Corrosion Conference. In this video he discusses MMO anode technology for cathodic protection systems and the importance of reliable anode to cable connections.
MMO Anode Technology
MMO anodes, or mixed metal oxide anodes are the latest technology in the corrosion industry. Mixed metal oxide anodes are lightweight and durable with a very low consumption rate.
MMO anodes are a mix of metal oxide electrocatalysts. In the presence of a DC voltage source they cause an electrical reaction that generates cathodic protection current. Unlike conventional impressed current anodes that physically consume as part of the cathodic protection reaction (at rates measured in kg/amp-year), MMO anodes are dimensionally stable and do not consume. Instead, they have a long and predictable catalytic life. MMO anodes consist of a thin coating of the MMO catalyst over an inert lightweight titanium substrate and are available in a wide range of shapes and configurations.
Why Cathodic Protection Systems Fail
The most critical component to any cathodic protection anode system is the connection of the anode to the cable that runs back to the power supply. Because the cable is part of the anode system, if it has any nicks or defects or is not water tight, that cable can become part of the anode and will very quickly consume. When that happens, the anode fails. So, with cathodic protection systems it is imperative to have the highest quality connections.
Typically, when a cathodic protection anode system fails, it is not the anode that fails, it is the anode connection that fails. MATCOR has developed a proprietary technology for connecting wire anodes to cable, called Kynex®. Wire anodes are the heart of a lot of our products and this proprietary anode technology is a huge leap forward in the reliability of these connections.
At the end of the day, for our clients, it’s all about delivering value. It’s providing a cost effective solution that’s going to serve them for a very long time. As a designer and manufacturer of cathodic protection anode systems, we are able to specifically address client needs with customized corrosion prevention solutions that provide:
Great economic value
MATCOR Products and Services
MATCOR is one of the world’s leading cathodic protection companies. We design, manufacture, install and service cathodic protection systems for clients worldwide. MATCOR provides services to the pipeline, midstream and oil & gas industries, protecting assets such as pipelines, storage tanks, and compressor stations. We also do a lot of work in the power industries, petrochemical, and chemical industries. Anywhere where you have buried steel structures, we are there to stop corrosion. We encourage you to contact MATCORthrough our website where our corrosion specialists and engineers can provide a solution tailored to your needs.
Chalfont, PA (Aug 31, 2015) – MATCOR, Inc., the trusted full-service provider of proprietary cathodic protection products, systems, and corrosion engineering solutions recently announced that the company has joined forces with CP Masters, Inc. The combined company will be known as MATCOR.
CP Masters brings 30 years of cathodic protection technical and system installation expertise to the MATCOR team. In addition to industry-qualified and experienced people, the company maintains one of the industry’s largest fleets of construction equipment.
This move enables MATCOR to execute cathodic protection and AC mitigation projects directly and efficiently. Additional benefits to customers include:
Consistent, high quality construction and installation services
Access to expert, conveniently located survey teams
Turnkey cathodic protection and AC mitigation solutions
“CP Masters and MATCOR have over 70 years of combined name recognition in the industry—with CP Masters known for superior construction and installation services, and MATCOR known for engineering expertise and proprietary products,” said Kevin Pitts, President of MATCOR, Inc. “Now as one company, we are able to offer customers a powerful combination of the best people, services and products in the corrosion industry.”
Cathodic protection, when applied properly, is an effective means to prevent corrosion of underground plant piping. For many underground applications, such as pipelines, cathodic protection system design is relatively straightforward. Plant and facility environments, however, are not simple applications. Plants have congested underground piping systems in a tightly spaced footprint. The presence of copper grounding systems, foundations with reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, conduit, utility piping and structural pilings (either bare or concrete with reinforcing steel) can greatly complicate the task of designing a pipe cathodic protection system.
For simple plant facilities, it is possible to isolate the piping and utilize a conventional galvanic corrosion prevention system. This works only if the plant piping is electrically isolated from other underground structures for the life of the facility. For most plant and facility applications, it is not practical to isolate the piping from the grounding system for the life of the facility. In these cases an impressed current anode system is the only alternative.
3 Methods of Cathodic Protection for Underground Piping and Structures
There are three basic approaches to cathodically protect underground piping and structures using impressed current anodes.
One method is the deep anode in which high current capacity anodes are installed from the structure in a deep hole drilled vertically 150+ feet deep. This is analogous to lighting a football field with floodlights.
Shallow Anode or Distributed Anode Bed
Another method is to use a shallow ground bed anode design where many smaller capacity ground bed anodes are spaced near the intended structures – analogous to street lamps lighting a street.
The third method is to place a linear anode parallel to and in close proximity to the piping to be protected discharging current continuously along its length – similar to fiber optic lighting.
This technical bulletin details the advantages of using the linear anode approach for new plant construction projects to protect buried piping in a congested environment. This approach provides the most effective solution both technically and commercially.
Pipe Cathodic Protection Design Issues for Plants & Facilities
Electrical Isolation in a Congested Plant Environment
Electrical isolation is a major concern when designing a CP system for any plant or facility application. Isolating a single cross country pipeline segment from point A to point B is achieved rather simply through the use of electrical isolation flanges/isolation joints that the pipeline operator maintains and tests regularly. The realities of power plant piping networks, on the other hand, significantly complicate electrical isolation. By code, everything above grade in a plant must be grounded, yet it is common to see pipe cathodic protection systems designed based on isolation of the buried piping. Even if electrical isolation is achieved during the plant construction, maintaining electrical isolation over the life of the facility may not be realistic. Given the speed and complexity with which new plants are erected, achieving electrical isolation during construction is no simple task. Once installed, electrical isolation flange kits require regular monitoring and periodic replacement that often does not occur. Piping modifications and other plant maintenance activities can also result in an inadvertent loss of electrical isolation. Cathodic protection for underground piping that relies on electrical isolation should be avoided for plant applications.
Current Distribution – a Critical Issue in Pipe Cathodic Protection Design
Another critical issue that must be properly considered during the design of a CP system for plant applications is the highly congested underground environment and the challenges of achieving thorough current distribution. Buried piping is often located in congested underground areas in close proximity to grounding systems, foundations with reinforcing steel, pilings systems, metallic duct banks and other structures that can shield current from the piping systems that are the intended target of plant cathodic protection systems. It is virtually impossible to assess where current will go in a plant environment – the more remote the anode source, the more difficult it is to assure appropriate current distribution.
When discussing current distribution, it is also important to discuss the potential for stray current. For grounded systems, current that is picked up by other buried metallic structures is merely current that is wasted and not available to protect the intended buried piping structures. For isolated metallic structures, such as foreign pipelines, ductile iron piping systems, and nearby facilities or structures, stray current may be a significant concern. Stray current problems occur when current is picked up on an isolated structure and later discharges off that structure and back to a grounded structure. At the location where stray currents discharge, rapid corrosion may be inadvertently induced on the isolated structure.
The Case for Linear Anode Cathodic Protection System Design
The linear anode solution consists of long runs of linear anode installed parallel and in very close proximity to the piping being protected. The current output is kept very low and is generally consistent across the entire system. A linear anode is in effect a distributed system with an infinite number of anodes spaced continually. This system provides the best technical cathodic protection solution and minimizes the current output required as follows:
Does not require electrical isolation. Because the linear anode is closely located next to the piping being protected, electrical isolation is not a significant concern. The anode is “closely coupled” to the piping and operates with a very low anode gradient that minimizes any losses to nearby structures including grounding.
Assures good current distribution as the anode runs parallel to the piping being protected. The linear anode cathodic protection system design eliminates any requirement for supplemental anodes to address areas where remote anodes may be shielded after the CP system is commissioned. Wherever the piping goes, the linear anode follows in the same trench. This also makes it very easy to adapt the design during piping revisions that may change the piping system routing as the plant construction proceeds.
Eliminates risks of stray current. Close proximity to the piping being protected significantly limits current losses to other structures and virtually eliminates shielding and stray current concerns. This also significantly reduces the total current requirements for the system, reducing the rectifier requirements.
Access issues – the linear anode is installed in very close proximity to the piping that is to be protected. This minimizes the risk of third party damage and reduces trenching required for buried cable. If installed in conjunction with the piping, the anode can be placed in the same trench as the piping affording the anode protection by the piping itself from external damage. This is a very cost effective cathodic protection installation when installed concurrently with the piping.
Ease of installation – when installed alongside the piping as the piping is being installed, the installation is simply a matter of laying the anode cable in the trench.
Our experts are happy to answer your questions about cathodic protection for underground piping.
MATCOR was founded in 1975 by William R. Schutt when he set out to develop a high quality, reliable source for cathodic protection products and equipment. The company designed and provided the first commercial cathodic protection system for reinforced concrete bridge decks that same year. The company has grown to offer a broad portfolio of proprietary cathodic protection and AC mitigation products, in addition to complete corrosion engineering services.
In March of 2015, MATCOR was acquired by Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services (Brand). Brand also owns CP Masters, Inc., a leader in the design and construction of cathodic protection and corrosion control prevention in the North American energy markets.
MATCOR is a BrandSafway company. In business since 1975, MATCOR provides services and products that solve corrosion problems globally for major infrastructure assets such as oil, gas and water pipelines, above ground storage tanks, power plants, energy facilities, well casings and steel-in-concrete structures. MATCOR is a turnkey ISO 9001:2015 certified provider of customized cathodic protection products and systems combined with high-quality corrosion engineering, installation and maintenance services. The company maintains specialized CIS (close interval survey) teams and a large fleet of construction equipment. MATCOR’s manufacturing plant is located in Chalfont, PA, USA, and the company maintains field service and sales offices in Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Georgia and Western Pennsylvania, in addition to a growing list of international distributors.
MATCOR to Present on Impressed Current Linear Anode Cathodic Protection at NACE UAE Corrosion Conference in Abu Dhabi
Chalfont, PA (April 27, 2015) – MATCOR, Inc. the trusted full-service provider of proprietary cathodic protection products, systems, and corrosion engineering solutions will present a paper exploring the use of flexible impressed current linear anodes to minimize current densities for a wide range of cathodic protection applications at the annual NACE UAE Corrosion Conference held at the St. Regis in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates May 12-14, 2015.
The presentation explores flexible impressed current linear anode cathodic protection that extends the benefits of linear anodes for various CP applications. To minimize current distribution challenges, the linear anodes are designed utilizing multiple internal connections, which provides redundancy and protection against uneven anode consumption, minimizes current densities and allows placement in close proximity to the structure. The linear anode is simple to install, requiring only a small trench, and is ideal for congested areas and tight spaces. See below for the complete abstract.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Shailesh Javia serves as International Director for MATCOR and has over 22 years experience focused on corrosion engineering and cathodic protection. His diverse knowledge and experience includes designing cathodic protection systems, managing turnkey CP projects and conducting commissioning surveys for cross country and city gas pipelines, tanks and vessels, tank bottoms, and industrial facilities including fertilizer, petrochemical and power plants, and refineries. Mr. Javia is a certified NACE Cathodic Protection Technologist, has successfully completed the NACE Direct Assessment Course and has presented several papers at NACE and ASME conferences.
ABSTRACT: Applications of Impressed Current Linear Anodes in Cathodic Protection
Flexible impressed current linear anodes can extend the benefits of linear anodes to a wide range of cathodic protection applications. Tight spaces, high traffic areas, poorly coated pipelines, new construction tank bottom, tank bottom retrofits, reinforcing steel-in-concrete, sheet pile walls or inside large diameter pipes – are all good examples of linear anode cathodic protection applications.
Linear anodes handle current distribution challenges by minimizing current densities, in addition to placement in close proximity to the structure being protected from corrosion. Innovative design utilizing multiple internal connections provides redundancy, protects against uneven anode consumption and minimizes voltage drop.
Linear anodes can simply be laid alongside a new pipeline; cable plowed next to an existing pipeline, or installed utilizing horizontal directional drilling (HDD) under an existing structure. Linear anodes require only a small trench for installation, ideal for congested areas and minimizing landowner “right of way” issues.
Chalfont, PA (Mar 9, 2015) – MATCOR, Inc., the trusted full-service provider of proprietary cathodic protection products, systems, and corrosion engineering solutions, announced last week that the company has been acquired by Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services (Brand). Brand also owns CP Masters, Inc., a leader in the design and construction of cathodic protection and corrosion control/prevention in the North American energy markets.
“This is an exciting time for MATCOR as we celebrate 40 years in business and move into a new chapter for the company,” said Douglas Fastuca, President of MATCOR. “Under the ownership of Brand and our new relationship with CP Masters, MATCOR is in an excellent position to better serve its customers in the US and internationally.”
Brand Energy and Infrastructure Services is a premier provider of integrated specialty services to the global energy, industrial and infrastructure markets. Its extensive portfolio of specialized industrial service offerings includes cathodic protection, work access, coatings, insulation, refractory, formwork & shoring, specialty mechanical services, and other related crafts. Brand delivers its services through a network of more than 240 branches, with a particular focus on the major hydrocarbon and power generation markets globally. For additional information visit www.beis.com.