Selecting the Correct Linear Anode for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Installation

As the world’s leading manufacturer of linear anodes, and the only manufacturer of a linear anode specifically designed for use with horizontal directional drilling installations, we thought it would be appropriate to discuss various anode options for HDD installation.

Can any linear anode be used in conjunction with horizontal directional drilling?

An engineer’s favorite answer to any question is “It depends” and this is certainly the case with HDD installations. The important thing to note is that when attempting to pull a linear anode through a bore hole, there is a chance that the pulling forces on the anode will exceed the strength of the anode and cause the anode to break. Even if the anode does not break completely, stretching of the anode can weaken or damage the internal header cable or anode to cable connections.

There are a lot of variables that can impact the success of any linear anode HDD installation. The short answer is yes, with the right bore hole, any linear anode can be pulled successfully. Conversely, with the wrong bore hole, any linear anode can be pulled apart during installation.

What are the key factors to consider when planning an HDD linear anode installation?

The key factors include a site geotechnical investigation, terrain and route mapping, and bore planning.

Site Geotechnical Investigation

Any discussion about HDD installation planning starts with a site geotechnical investigation. Obtaining a geotechnical survey or as much geological information about the respective jobsite is very important. A great amount of record information is available through sources including:

  • United States Geological Society (USGS)
  • National Geological Map Database
  • Publications of the US Army Corps of Engineers
  • Earth Explorer
  • The National Soil Survey Center (NSSC) a division of the US Department of Agriculture
  • State Departments of Transportation
  • Highway Administrations
  • Original construction records

In addition to record information, site-specific investigations (soil bores and soil sampling) by trained geologists and geotechnical service companies can provide valuable detailed data on the planned bore area geology.  The geotechnical analysis should identify several relevant items including:

  • Soil identification along the bore route to locate rock, rock inclusions, gravely soils, loose deposits, discontinuities and hardpan
  • Soil strength and stability characteristics
  • Groundwater

Local drillers with experience in the identified area can often provide valuable insight based on similar projects in the same area.

Terrain and HDD Route Mapping

Collecting accurate topographical information of the bore route is another critical component in the planning phase.  Terrain and HDD mapping includes determining HDD bore hole entrance and exit locations, identifying and mapping elevation profile changes, ensuring that other utilities are appropriately identified and avoided, assessing the need for traffic control, evaluating any environmental considerations or limitations that might impact the use of drilling muds and hole conditioners.

Bore Planning Software

Several commercial bore planning software tools are available to assist in the planning phase.  These programs utilize the soil and geotechnical data combined with the terrain and route mapping information to provide a graphic visualization of the job helping the driller more accurately “see” and perform the job from start to finish.  These software tools help the contractor select the appropriate drill rig, drill bit type and back reamer based on the anticipated soil conditions and the total bore length.  By choosing the drill stem and length, the desired bore path depth, desired minimum cover, diameter and bend radius of the product being pulled, the software plots a proposed bore pitch, calculates setback distances, figures point to point bore paths, estimates hole volumes and calculates pullback time. The software can also provide a fluid–mixing process map that shows how much mud should be used based on soil conditions, drill unit and tooling used.

If a bore planning software package is not used, field calculations should be performed to appropriately choose the correct drill rig, drill bit and back reamer tooling requirements, desired bore path and quantity and type of drilling fluids to be utilized.

What anode should be selected for HDD installation?

MATCOR’s SPL-FBR™ Linear Anode may be suitable for some HDD installations.

MATCOR manufactures two linear anode products (SPL-FBR™ Linear Anode and the Iron Gopher™) that are both, in the right circumstances, suitable for use in HDD installations.  The installation contractor, along with the client, must carefully select the appropriate anode and the appropriate anode installation methodology.  The two generally accepted methodologies are direct pulling of the anode through the properly conditioned borehole by attaching the anode to the backreamer after the initial pilot hole has been drilled.  The second installation methodology involves pulling an HDPE pipe sleeve into the borehole, installing the anode inside the pipe, and then removing the HDPE sleeve.  The tables that follow are intended to assist the installer in selecting the appropriate anode and installation methodology.  The selection of the appropriate anode type and installation methodology is subjective based on a qualitative analysis.

Iron Gopher® Linear Anode for HDD Applications

TABLE 1 – Linear Anode Application Difficulty

EASY• Less than 200 foot pulling length
• Minimal changes in elevation
• No environmental restrictions on use of drilling muds/hole conditioners
• Installation costs and risks are low
MODERATE• 200-500 foot pulling length
• Moderate elevation change
• No environmental restrictions on use of drilling muds/hole conditioners
• Installation costs are modest and risks are low
DIFFICULT• 500-1000 foot pulling length
• Moderate elevation changes
• Some environmental restriction on use of drilling muds/hole conditioners
• Installation costs are higher and risks are moderate
EXTREME• 500+ foot pulling length
• Extreme or multiple elevation changes
• Restrictive environmental limits on use of drilling muds/hole conditioners
• Critical application with high costs and risks

TABLE 2 – Anode Selection Guidelines

 Linear Anode Application Difficulty 1
Earth LoamsFBRFBR/Iron GopherIron GopherIron Gopher*
Sand/SiltFBR/Iron GopherIron GopherIron GopherIron Gopher*
ClayIron GopherIron GopherIron Gopher*Iron Gopher*
Gravel / CobleIron GopherFBR*/Iron Gopher*Iron Gopher*Iron Gopher*
RockyFBR*/Iron Gopher*FBR*/Iron Gopher*Iron Gopher*Iron Gopher*

*Anode is to be installed in HDPE sleeve that is then removed

1Classifying the linear anode application difficulty using Table 1 is a qualitative analysis and may warrant taking into consideration other risk factors that may be appropriate. In general, the more difficult the application, the more costly the installation component, the greater the case to use the higher pulling strength Iron Gopher and the greater the incentive to use temporary HDPE sleeving to assure the lowest risk installation.
2Soil Types based on the US Department of Agriculture Soil textural classification guidelines. Earth Loams would include the broad range of Sandy Clay Loam, Loam, Silt Loam, and Clay Loam.

What contingency planning is warranted for an HDD installation?

Even with proper project planning and an experienced installation contractor, some consideration should be given to contingency plans if something unforeseen happens during the HDD boring and anode installation.

  • Are alternate bits available if needed to complete the pilot hole?
  • Is a larger boring machine available if needed?
  • If drilling is more challenging than anticipated, do we have ready access to HDPE pipe for sleeving if warranted?
  • Does the project warrant having one or more spare anode assemblies in the event of an anode breakage during installation?

While these risks can be greatly minimized with proper planning, asking these questions before mobilizing to the site can help solve problems more quickly, saving time and money.

For assistance with linear anode selection for HDD applications, MATCOR’s linear anode systems, project management or installation, please CONTACT US.

Tank Farm Design Recommendations for Corrosion Prevention

Tank Farm Design RecommendationsWhether designing a few above ground storage tanks or performing tank farm design for an entire facility, proper consideration should be given to the adverse impact of corrosion that can occur on the tank bottoms. When addressing the issue of tank bottom corrosion, consider the environment, the tank size and design, and the type of tank foundation to be employed. There are definite advantages in certain materials based on the size and requirements of an above ground storage tank (AST) foundation. By carefully assessing the tank farm surroundings and long-term requirements, costly and potentially dangerous corrosion related tank failures can be avoided. Whether you are relying on a reputable company in the industry or taking on your own front-end engineering and design, there are across-the-board tank farm design recommendations to consider when it comes to corrosion prevention:

In terms of corrosion prevention for under ground storage tank (AST) foundations, is cathodic protection (CP) effective?

For tanks erected on compacted soil or sand foundations, with or without a concrete ring wall, cathodic protection is considered a “good engineering practice” and has been proven as an effective means of addressing tank bottom corrosion concerns. When you compare various methods of corrosion prevention for above ground storage tank bottoms, CP is shown to prevail over asphalt or concrete unless your project involves smaller diameter tanks. The corrosion failure rate is greater for tanks built on asphalt or concrete compared to tanks where a concentric ring cathodic protection system is installed.

In terms of corrosion, when is asphalt or oil/sand acceptable for above ground storage tank (AST) foundations?

Asphalt foundations are not common in the United States, as the mechanical integrity of asphalt can be an issue depending on the AST environment. As well, the use of oil/sand layer designs has been phased out by most tank owners in the United States due to the adverse impact that these oil/sand layers have on cathodic protection systems. While historically prevalent in the Middle East and Asia, most larger national oil companies have abandoned this approach because it causes shielding of cathodic protection (CP) current, allowing corrosion to occur. Kuwait Oil, Aramco, and others now prefer clean sand combined with CP as the base material of choice. This is standard in the United States and has been for several decades.

What is a Concentric Ring Cathodic Protection System for above ground storage tanks (AST)?  

A. Designed for long-term storage, a cathodic ring system for ASTs offers a factory-assembled design whereby the anode rings are ready to install with cable leads that extend past ring wall penetration. Concentric rings sizes are made to order, requiring no onsite welding, cutting, or splicing. The anode locations are marked, rings are laid out, and cabling is placed using a proven labeling system for future monitoring. A mixed metal oxide (MMO) anode is centered among a low-oxygen-generating coke backfill to eliminate depolarization.

Learn about MATCOR’s complete cathodic protection design services.

Are there some cases where concrete foundations are advantageous for tank farm corrosion prevention?

During installation of above-ground storage tanks, there are some advantages to concrete foundations for tanks when it comes to corrosion—the high pH of the concrete acts to passivate the steel, unless you have an above ground storage tank (AST) liner pad or something that is between the concrete and the tank bottom. If you can effectively seal the chime from the ingress of water and oxygen, the corrosion rates are generally quite small. Unfortunately concrete foundations for larger diameter tanks are not typically practical and can be quite expensive to properly install. Concrete foundations with appropriate AST liners are best for smaller diameter tanks.

In tank farm design for corrosion prevention, what are the best recommendations for above ground storage tank (AST) liners?

Plastic secondary containment liners are largely phased out in the United States and have been replaced by geotextile membranes that serve the same secondary containment purpose as plastic—they are conductive to allow cathodic protection (CP). The general standard in the United States is to have a CP system directly under the tank in order to minimize stray current or current losses due to earthing systems around the tank. Since the tank bottom is a large bare structure and the anodes are closely coupled to the tank bottom, there is usually very little current drain to other structures; the system if properly designed can accommodate modest current drain. While a plastic liner provides isolation from other nearby structures, when a problem arises with the CP system or if the CP system reaches the end of its projected service life, there is no way to install a new CP system without replacing the tank bottom.

Tank farm corrosion prevention is more manageable now than ever before. The MATCOR Concentric Ring Cathodic Protection System™ is just one of many excellent options for protecting your above ground storage tank (AST) from damaging corrosion.

For assistance with tank farm design, our Concentric Ring Cathodic Protection System™, project management or installation, please CONTACT US.